I have been wondering for a few weeks about the different complement particles we have in in Hokkien and their respective functions and still find I am unsure about the differences between some of them.
To be more particular, I am talking about the particles which follow after a verb and link it to a complement (the role that in Mandarin is fulfilled by 得). Of course Hokkien, unlike Mandarin, possesses several of these which as far as I can see fulfill quite different functions, some of which I think I have grasped, while others are still somewhat unclear to me. So I would like to ask everybody’s opinion on this.
The ones that I can think of right now are:
1. “kah/kà” (MoE 甲): originially the same as “kàu” (到), and indeed sometimes still pronounced as “kàu”, this particle is used to express the extent of the verb. Bsp.:
- kiann kah beh sí (驚甲欲死) 'to be frightened so much (to the extent) that one almost dies'
- I kóng-ūe kóng kah ta̍k-ke lóng khùn--khì-ah. (伊講話講甲逐家攏睏去矣。) 'S/he talked so much (to the extent) that everybody fell asleep.'
- bē liáu bô siánn hó (賣了無啥好) 'doesn’t sell very well' (the “after” interpretation admittedly doesn’t make sense here)
- Hit king tshù khí liáu tsin suí. (彼間厝起了真媠。) 'They built this building to be very beautiful.'
- Tsit niá siat-tsuh tshīng tio̍h tsin sù-sī (這領シャツ穿著真四序。) 'This shirt is very comfortable (to wear).'
- Lí tsit siú kua tshiùnn tio̍h tsiok hó-thiann--ê. (你這首歌唱著足好聽的。 'You sang this song very beautifully.' (I guess that in this case “liáu” could also be used, maybe even preferable?)
- sé hōo tshing-khì (洗予(伊)清氣) 'to wash until it is clean'
- kóng hōo tshing-tshó (講予(伊)清楚) 'to make clear, to tell in all clarity'
Best wishes from Taipei,
EDIT: Just asked my teacher again, according to her feeling I got the meaning of "tio̍h" about right, it is indeed used to indicate a feeling invoked by the action. However, apparently the definition of "feeling" here is broader than I thought, so I would rather use the word "impression" now. E.g. "I sé-sann sé tio̍h tsin kín." (伊洗衫洗著真緊。) 'S/he does his/her laundry very quickly." In this sentence, tio̍h introduces the manner in which the action is performed, but it is a subjective impression, not an objective description. Also, the use of this particle seems to imply habitual action. S/he always does the laundry quickly, not just right now.
On "liáu" she said that it introduces a manner or result of the action. It apparently tends to imply more objectivity and, most importantly, is used for single actions. E.g. "I kin-á-ji̍t sé sann sé liáu pí phóo-thong-sî khah kín." (伊今仔日洗衫洗了比普通時較緊。) 'S/he did the laundry more quickly than usually today.'